Passes through West Bengal,
Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, and
|Consists of plains, hills, riverine tracts and jungles. Heavily populated and cultivated||INDIA:
BORDER SECURITY FORCE (BSF)
Strength: 1,062 Border Out Posts (BOPs) at the border. 186 battalions with 2,57,363 personnel overallBANGLADESH:
BORDER GUARDS BANGLADESH (BGB)
Strength: 64 battalions with 70,000 personnel overall, posted along several BOPs
|1) Smuggling of cattle, medicines, drugs etc
2) 3063.24 km of the border is fenced with floodlights to prevent illegal immigration and human traficking
3) India-Bangladesh enclaves (200) were exchanged in 2015 to simplify the border
Runs through the Line of Control (LC) in Jammu and Kashmir to Sir Creek in Rann of Kutch in Gujarat and Sindh province of Pakistan. While the LC is the military line and prone to frequent firing, the International Border starts from Sangam in Jammu goes up to Gujarat. This is relatively peace.
|Terrain ranges extreme mountains and low hills to bleak deserts and marshy land. The Gilgit-Baltistan area of Pakistan has some of the highest peaks and glaciers, and is sometimes called as the ‘third pole’||INDIA:
BORDER SECURITY FORCE (BSF)
Strength: 659 BOPs. The Creek Crocodile, a specialized ‘amphibious’ commando unit of BSF, is especially raised for Sir Creek area to prevent intrusion of unwanted elements. While the LC part of the border is manned by the Indian Army with BSF in pockets, the IB is manned entirely by the BSFPAKISTAN:
Strength: 16,100 rangers. Like India, the LC is manned by Pakistan Army with elements of Rangers. The IB is manned by the Rangers alone. But unlike India, the Pakistan Rangers report to the army
|1) Experiences infiltration by terrorists and smuggling of arms, ammunitons and drugs.
2) Can be observed from space at night due to 1,50,000 floodlights deployed by India to curb cross-border crimes.
3) ‘Kartarpur Corridor’, a border crossing for Indians to visit Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan is visa-free
The entire border is undemarcated and undelineated. Called the Line of Actual Control, it is divided into three sectors: Western, Middle, and Eastern
|Consists of harsh himalayan terrain, and subzero temperatures. With the average altitude of 6,500 metres, it is the highest border region on earth||INDIA:
INDO-TIBETAN POLICE FORCE (ITPF)
& SPECIAL FRONTIER FORCE (SFF)
Strength: 2,25,000 personnel across the border. However, in both the Western and the Eastern sector, Indian Army is deployed on the border along with the border guarding forcesCHINA:
WESTERN THEATRE COMMAND OF PEOPLE’S LIBERATION ARMY (PLA)
Strength: 1,10,000 of the 2,30,000 on the Indian border
|1) Most conflicted areas: Ladakh and Arunachal Pradesh
2) Road building efforts in Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim & Arunachal Pradesh have been ongoing on the Indian side to improve the inadequate infrastructure.
3) The infrastructure on the Chinese side is modern and comprises roads, railway line and airports
Runs across Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal, and Sikkim
|Consists of steep mountains and swift rivers that form deep valleys before draining into the Indian plains. Climate varies with elevation, from subtropical to temperate||INDIA:
SASHASTRA SEEMA BAL (SSB)
Strength: 19 Battalions and 132 BOPs across the border.BHUTAN:
ROYAL BHUTAN ARMY (RBA)
Strength: Standing army around 16,000 trained by the Indian Army
|1) Visa free border. India-Bhutan Group on Border Management and Security exists as a mechanism to assess security threats
2) India has approved the contruction of 313 km border road
3) Proposed integrated Check Post (ICP) at Jalgaon, West Bengal is yet to be developed
4) An indigenous group in the Totopara village on the border is facing extinction. Only 1,630 of its people are left in the world due to mining pollution
|INDO-NEPAL||1,751 km||Consists of mountainous regions, rivers and has a rough terrain. The south of Nepal has low and midlands with highlands above||INDIA:
SASHASTRA SEEMA BAL (SSB) along
with local police.
Strength: 34 Battalions across the borderNEPAL:
ARMED POLICE FORCE (APF) along
with Nepal Police.
Strength: Total 77,117 personnel
|1) Open border, has no fence. No need of passports and visas for Indian and Nepali nations to visit each other’s countries.
2) India has approved to upgrade 1,377 of the strategic roads to meet operational requirements.
3) Kalapani territory, Susta in Nepal and recently Kali river are disputed areas.
4) Bilateral mechanisms exist to prevent border crimes
Runs from tripoint with China to the tripoint with Bangladesh
|Varies from low mountains in the south to high peaks in the north, has low population density||INDIA:
Strength: 64 battalions with 63,747 personnel overallMYANMAR:
Strength: 3,06,000 personnel overall
|1) Has two undemarcated areas on the border: Lohit in Arunachal Pradesh and Kabab valley in Manipur
2) Free Movement Regime (FMR) exists, allowing tribes living nearby to travel 16 km across either side of the border.
3) India has constructed a barrier sealing 1,624 km of the border to prevent border crimes. The border is the hub of narcotics production
Compiled by Mili Verma